Severe, recalcitrant dermatologic conditions often require systemic treatment. Although efficacious, these medications have been associated with wide-ranging adverse reactions.
Recent Literature On Treatment Approaches, Advances and Guidelines for the Acne Cure
Retinoic acid is a physiological compound of human blood. Blood levels range from 1000 to 7000 pg/mL (usually 1500-5000 pg/mL). Results of studies on absorption of topical retinoic acid in laboratory animals, although rather conflicting, demonstrate that it induces plasma concentrations which are well below concentrations caused by non-teratogenic oral doses.
Assessment of a new biological complex efficacy on dysseborrhea, inflammation, and Propionibacterium acnes proliferation
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit triggered by Propionibacterium acnes. A bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract, and mannitol (BGM) complex has been developed to provide patients with acne with a specific dermocosmetic to be used adjunctively with conventional treatments. The aim of these studies was to assess the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential of BGM complex and its individual compounds as well as its impact on sebum composition.
The pathogenesis of acne vulgaris involves several phases including androgen-dependent hyper-seborrhea, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Recent investigations have shown that in fact P. acnes provokes the activation of the inflammasome present in macrophages and dendritic cells.
A Randomized, Split-Face, Controlled, Double-Blind, Single-Center Clinical Study: Transient Addition of a Topical Corticosteroid to a Topical Retinoid in Acne Patients to Reduce Initial Irritation
Topical retinoids are first line medications in acne treatment but are limited by erythema, scaling, dryness, and initial worsening of acne, which contribute to discontinuation. We sought a pharmacologic strategy to decrease irritation and quicken the onset of action attempting to increase compliance.
Inhibition of HDAC8 and HDAC9 by microbial short-chain fatty acids breaks immune tolerance of the epidermis to TLR ligands
Epidermal keratinocytes participate in immune defense through their capacity to recognize danger, trigger inflammation, and resist infection. However, normal skin immune function must tolerate contact with an abundant community of commensal microbes without inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial environmental conditions dictate the production of molecules that influence epigenetic events and cause keratinocytes to break innate immune tolerance.
Olumacostat glasaretil, a novel topical sebum inhibitor, in the treatment of acne vulgaris: A phase IIa, multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled study
Olumacostat glasaretil (OG) inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, the enzyme responsible for the first, rate-limiting step in de novo fatty acid synthesis. OG inhibited in vitro human sebocyte lipid production and reduced in vivo sebaceous gland size in hamster ears. Safety and efficacy of OG 7.5% gel were evaluated in patients with moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris.
Different Propionibacterium acnes Phylotypes Induce Distinct Immune Responses and Express Unique Surface and Secreted Proteomes
Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal bacterium that contributes to the development of acne vulgaris and other infections. Recent work revealed that P. acnes clinical isolates can be classified into distinct phylotypes, several of which have associations with healthy skin or acne. We sought to determine if these phylotypes induce different immunological responses and express protein factors that may contribute to their disease associations.
A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes.
Many inflammatory mediators and cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris (AV). Information about the roles of these factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in AV lesions.